Original Mărțișor Art
Stephen III of Moldavia he is also known as Stefan the Great (Stefan cel Mare) Was the Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504 and the most representative member of the House of Musat.
During his reign, he strengthened Moldavia and maintained its independence against the ambitions of Hungary, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire, which all tended to subdue the land. Stephen achieved fame in Europe, especially for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles. After his decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, Pope Sixtus IV deemed him verus christianae fidei athleta (true Champion of Christian Faith).
Menaced by powerful neighbours, Stefan successfully repelled an invasion by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, defeating him in the Battle of Baia (in 1467), crushed an invading Tatar force at Lipnic and invaded Wallachia in 1471 (the latter had by then succumbed to Ottoman power and had become its vassal). Stefan’s search for European assistance against the Turks had no real success and he won all the crucial battles mostly on his own.
After 1484, when he lost the fortresses of Chilia Noua and Cetatea Alba to an Ottoman blitz invasion, Stephen had to face not only new Turkish onslaughts which he defeated again on November 16, 1485 at Catlabuga Lake and on the Siret River in March 1486, but also the Polish designs on Moldavian independence. Finally on August 20, 1503 he concluded a peace treaty with Sultan Beyazid II that preserved Moldavia’s self-rule, at the cost of an annual tribute to the Turks.
During the assault of Chilia Noua in 1462, Stephen was shot in the leg and this wound never fully healed. Over time, he summoned to his royal court many doctors, astrologists and other persons, who attempted to heal his wound. However the result was not very convincing. Towards the end of his life, Stephen suffered from gout, which immobilized his hands and legs. On November 9, 1503, Vladislav, King of Hungary wrote to the Doge of Venice: Finally the great Prince died on the morning of July 2, 1504. He was buried in the Monastery of Putna, which he built earlier.
Stephen the Great is perceived by the Romanian Orthodox Church as a defender of the faith of the whole of Christianity. Stephen’s opposition to the Ottoman Empire protected the entirety of Europe from an invasion. Stefan cel Mare built during his life, 44 churches and monasteries one for each battle that he won (44 out of a total of 48). At the end of the 20th century, the Romanian Orthodox Church decided to canonize Stephen. The canonization was took place on June 20, 1992 by the Synodic Council of the Romanian Orthodox Church and since then Stefan is called “Saint Voivode Stephen the Great”. His feast day in the Romanian Orthodox calendar is July 2 – on the day of his death.
Pages of History (Moldova in the period 1880-1920)
A spiriduş in Moldavian and Romanian mythology represent a little creature that can be either good or evil and is very similar to the leprechauns. The name is a diminutive of “spirit” (with the meaning of “ghost” or“soul”).
By its nature, Spiriduş can be compared to the protective spirit genius of Roman mythology, the dwarves in Nordic Kobold mythology , or the small the demon from the French Lutin family .
Their origin is supposed to come from the satyrs of ancient Athens and is related to belief in house spirits – a boundary between human civilization, wilderness and the supernatural world. Throughout history Spiriduş have been influenced by Christianity and emerged in folklore as an amalgam of beliefs on the resurrection of the dead theme.
Usually Spiriduş is born from an egg that was hatched in left armpit for a period of time and depending on the origin of egg it has the appearance of a chicken or a small snake, as well as of a small creature resembling a dwarf or a little monster. It is usually s kept in a bottle and it is strange creature that has to work and help his owner to obtain money or other goods. A sum of money or a gift handed by Spiriduş to another person will always return to the owner in a magical way.
Although the presence of Spiriduş is beneficial in most cases, there are legends where it may work against its owner. It can be also characterized like a little devil or a bizarre creature that brings all the evil in the world. Home Spiriduş, who carries out domestic work, act as it pleases when is not given an occupation and often bring household damage.
According to many other legends, especially on Moldavian territory Spiriduş, although is a servant of his owner and does good things for his master, is sent by the Devil, and after the owner’s death , his soul will belong to the devil.
Traditional Art in Moldova; Ceramic and Clay Plates
The Institute of Mathematics was formed in 1964 on basis of Mathematical Department of the Institute of Physics and Mathematics, founded in 1961.
The main objectives in the work of the Institute are to maintain existing research domains, to develop new directions in line with the Republic of Moldova needs, to integrate into the world science and to train highly qualified specialists.
The most important achievements:
In the sphere of algebra, keeping on the investigations of Academician V. Andrunachievici, new results in the structural theory of algebras without nilpotent elements, in the theory of varieties and strongly regular algebras have been obtained. The properties of quasiregularity and primitivity relative to right ideals have been studied.
In theory of binary and n-ary quasigroups various problems of algebra, geometry and combinatorics have been studied. Various applications of quasigroups in encryption and coding of information have been studied. Topological aspects of algebraic systems have been represented by constructing of the general theory of radicals of rings and topological modules, as well as by investigation of possibilities of topologizing and continuation of the ring topology and by studying of the structure of local compact rings. The properties of maximal series in lattice of all group topologies in abelian groups also have been studied.
The existence of an infinite set of Fiodorov groups in Lobacevski spaces has been demonstrated for the first time using a constructive approach, this leading to changes in arythmicity hypothesis. New geometric methods for obtaining of discrete groups and decompositions of Lobacevski space have been developed, as well as methods for construction and studying of hyperbolic varieties. In normal linear spaces and in graphs the elements of the convexity theory have been developed.
The algebraic invariants method has been developed, in recent years being completed by the Lie algebras methods. Geometric properties of invariants for various nonlinear differential equations have been studied. Normal finite smooth forms of local families of vector fields in a neighborhood of an invariant variety have been described.
Macroeconomic and interindustry models have been developed, as well as the corresponding programs for prognosis of the national economic development.
In Moldova, effective methods based on formal grammars and languages for development of application and system software have been implemented. A computational noncommutative algebra system for calculation of Gröbner basis, Anick resolution, Hilbert series and for prediction of the infinite obstructions behavior based on their finite component have been developed. Formal models of computation based on universal Turing machines and molecular calculations have been constructed.
A conceptual structure of the decision support systems (DSS) has been proposed and founded, constituting a base for DSS development for specific domains addressing poorly structured problems.
A concept of Information Society creation in the Republic of Moldova has also been proposed. Methods for implementation of discrete simulation languages, algorithms for visualization and analysis of the experiments results, for automatization of design and implementation of problem-oriented simulation systems have been developed.
Sunset and Sunrise in Chisinau
Mihai Eminescu is the most essential and prominent figure in Moldavian and Romanian literature. Born on January 15, 1850 he was a poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as one of the most famous and influential persons in European culture. Notable works include Luceafărul (The Vesper/The Evening Star/The Lucifer/The Daystar), Odă în metru antic (Ode in Ancient Meter), and the five Letters (Epistles/Satires). In his poems he frequently used metaphysical, mythological and historical subjects. In general his work was influenced by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.
Eminescu was an active member of the Junimea literary society and he worked as an editor for the newspaper Timpul (“The Time”), the official newspaper of the Conservative Party (1880–1918). His poetry was first published when he was 16 and he went to Vienna to study when he was 19. The poet’s Manuscripts, containing 46 volumes and approximately 14,000 pages.
Nicolae Iorga, the Romanian historian, considers Eminescu the godfather of the modern Romanian language. He is unanimously celebrated as the greatest and most representative Romanian poet. Eminescu’s poems have been translated in over 60 languages. His life, work and poetry strongly influenced the Romanian culture and his poems are widely studied in Romanian public schools.
His most notable poems are: Doina (the name is a traditional type of Romanian song), 1884, Lacul (The Lake), 1876, Luceafărul (The Vesper), 1883, Floare albastră (Blue Flower), 1884, Dorința (Desire), 1884, Seara pe deal (Evening on the Hill), 1885, O, rămai (Oh, Linger On), 1884, Epigonii (Epigones), 1884, Scrisori (Letters or “Epistles-Satires”), Si dacă (And if…), 1883, Odă în metru antic (Ode (in Ancient Meter), 1883, Mai am un singur dor (I Have Yet One Desire),1883, La Steaua (At Star),1886
His most notable work in prose was: Făt-Frumos din lacrimă (The Tear Drop Prince), Geniu pustiu (Empty Genius), Sărmanul Dionis (Wretched Dionis), Cezara (Caesara)
Due to his conservative nationalistic views, Eminescu was easily adopted as an icon by the Romanian right. A major obstacle to their fully embracing him was the fact he never identified himself as a Christian and his poetry rather indiscriminately uses Buddhist, Christian, agnostic, and atheist themes.
He died on June 15, 1889 and left a huge legacy for Romanian and Moldavian people.